The corals reefs of Australia and Papua New Guinea cover 19% of the world’s total reef area and contain levels of biological diversity approaching the ‘hot spots’ of the Philippines and Indonesia; Human pressures on these reefs are lower than in other parts of the world (particularly SE Asia).
Papua New Guinea (PNG) has a total land area of 462,000 square kilometers (km2), making
it the largest Pacific island country. Its exclusive economic zone at 3.12 million km2 is the
world’s second largest. The country’s sparsely distributed population of only 7 million
makes PNG’s population density of approximately 9 people per km2 the lowest in the South
PNG’s principal marine and coastal ecosystems include 13,840 km2 of coral reefs, 4,200 km2
of mangrove swamp forests, and extensive seagrass beds. The country is home to at least 500